subject: miRNA

Ancient DNA Provides the Clue to Modern Cattle

Ancient DNA Provides the Clue to Modern Cattle

Modern dairy cows are as elite as Olympic athletes. They are champion milk producers and enable humans to turn fodder into dairy food with incredible efficiency. Underlying this performance is thousands of years of selection and improved management practices. Initially, the selection process was farmer driven and resulted in the development of many cattle breeds, but since the mid 20th century, when coordinated efforts by farmer groups and the dairy industry focused attention on the best methods to achieve improvements in production, the gain in efficiency through genetic selection has been remarkable. Read More...

Milk Vesicles Offer New Hope for Arthritis

Milk Vesicles Offer New Hope for Arthritis

Tiny, bubble-like structures found in cow’s milk appear to slow the development of arthritis in mice. The structures, called vesicles, were originally thought to be little more than the waste products of cellular processes. But in recent years, such vesicles have been shown to contain molecules called microRNAs, which in some contexts perform important biological functions. Although not fully demonstrated, the working hypothesis of lead investigator Fons van de Loo—is that the RNA molecules in milk vesicles are absorbed in the intestines—and modulate local mucosa l activity, thereby influencing the body’s innate immune system. Read More...

Designer cows may help improve human health

Designer cows may help improve human health

Designer jeans are fashioned to suit the individual needs of each human body shape. A good pair of well-cut jeans makes all the difference--they can be tailored to make a person comfortable at an informal BBQ, or a theatre premiere. The versatility of the primary design of jeans allows a good fit for one and all, and this is the key to their perpetual success. Like jeans, the same basic design for milk is used by each mammalian species; milk is formulated differently to suit the specific needs of the young of each species. Read More...

Milk vesicles uncovered

Milk vesicles uncovered

As dairy animals go, Holstein cows are record breakers. They produce more milk than any other breed or species, enough to fill a large tank truck over the course of their lifetimes. But the details of what's in their milk isn't entirely clear. Among the mystery ingredients are those that reside within exosomes, tiny membrane-bound packages that tote around proteins from their host cell. Read More...