Symposium Posters 2011

Casein and whey fractions of sow and gilt colostrum stimulate cell proliferation of a human gastrointestinal cell line in vitro.

Introduction Colostrum and milk from many species has previously been observed to exhibit an array of biological activities. Many of these bioactive constituents are proteins or peptide fragments derived from proteolysis. One of these bioactivities identified in porcine colostrum is the promotion of neonatal gastrointestinal development (Simmen et al 1990). Further, the observation that on average piglets born to multiparous sows exhibit enhanced performance compared to progeny from gilts (Carney et al 2009) was also evaluated within the context of altered colostral bioactivity influencing... Read More... Download PDF

DGAT1 and SCD1 have effects beyond milk production and fat composition

DGAT1 and SCD1 have effects beyond milk production and fat composition Marleen Visker, Erik Mullaart, Johan van Arendonk and Henk Bovenhuis Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Cooperative cattle improvement organization CRV, Arnhem, the Netherlands Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) and stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1) are genes involved in fat metabolism. We have shown previously that polymorphisms in both genes segregate in the Dutch Holstein Friesian dairy population, and that these polymorphisms have major effects on milk production and/or... Read More... Download PDF

Tammar wallaby mammary cathelicidins are differentially expressed during lactation and exhibit antimicrobial and cell proliferative activity

Cathelicidins secreted in milk may be central to autocrine feedback in the mammary gland for optimal development in addition to conferring innate immunity to both the mammary gland and the neonate. This study exploits the unusual reproductive strategy of the tammar wallaby model to analyse differential splicing of cathelicidin genes and to evaluate the bactericidal activity and effect of the protein on mammary epithelial cell proliferation. Two linear peptides, Con73 and Con218, derived from the heterogeneous carboxyl end of cathelicidin transcripts, MaeuCath1 and MaeuCath7 respectively, were... Read More... Download PDF

The gene for WFDC2 is differentially expressed in the mammary gland of the tammar wallaby and the protein provides immune protection to the mammary gland and the developing pouch young

The tammar wallaby (Macropus. eugenii) is a marsupial that has developed a unique lactation strategy compared to eutherians. This animal has a short gestation and gives birth to an altricial young. Lactation is relatively long and the milk changes progressively in composition to meet the developmental requirements of the young. The lactation cycle has been divided into four phases; Phase 1 consists of a 26 day pregnancy followed by parturition. During phase 2A of lactation (the first 100 days post partum) the pouch young remains attached to the teat and milk comprises of elevated levels of... Read More... Download PDF

Comparison of lactation and fecundity candidate genes using genome-wide analysis

Laboratory inbred mouse models are a valuable resource to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for complex reproductive performance traits. Recent advances in mouse genomics and high density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mapping has enabled genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to identify associated genes. Global microarray expression profiles of ovarian development also provide important information for identifying genes playing important roles in mouse fecundity. We have developed a highly fecund inbred strain, QSi5, with accompanying genotyping for comparative analysis of... Read More... Download PDF

Discovery of Novel Bioactive milk oligosaccharides in different goat genotypes

Human milk contains significant quantities of a unique family of complex carbohydrates (oligosaccharides) that are believed to confer peculiar health benefits to the nursing infants. At present, the only source of milk oligosaccharides is human milk, which limits oligosaccharides research and practical applications. Recent studies have documented that these complex oligosaccharides are present in other mammalian milks, such as goat and bovine milk. The oligosaccharides characterized so far in goat milk contain structural elements similar to that of human milk and therefore are predicted to be... Read More... Download PDF

Molecular characterization of a novel Monotreme lactation protein

Monotreme reproduction is unique among mammals. It comprises the laying and incubation of a small leathery egg which is held within the mothers skin fold, followed by an extended period of post-hatching lactation. Upon emerging the hatchling is highly altricial and relies solely on the mother’s milk for nutrition and development. The brief maternal gestation and incubation period results in small energy expenditure. Maternal stored energy is reserved for the support of the hatchlings development by changing the milk composition progressively during lactation which correlates with the... Read More... Download PDF

Growth factor distribution between cream and skim in human milk: elevance for premature baby nutrition

Breast-feeding gives developmental advantages to infants, as numerous investigators have reported in these meetings of Milk Genomics. Some include reduced risks of necrotizing enterocolitis, gastroenteritis, respiratory infection, and immunologically based diseases, in addition to improved cognitive development later in life. Necrotic enterocolitis (NEC) is a grave illness among preterm babies all over the world. Efforts to correct this illness involve feeding human milk to these babies, and in many cases this is done via human milk obtained through banks. Future development of human milk... Read More... Download PDF

Biological functions of α-lactalbumin

Biological functions of α-lactalbumin Gunveen Kaur, Alicia Wynne, Amelia Brennan, Kevin Nicholas and Julie Sharp Institute for Technology Research and Innovation Deakin University, Waurn Ponds, 3217, Victoria, Australia, α-lactalbumin is a major whey protein present in milk of most mammals which possesses several important biological functions. Apart from its role in lactose synthesis α-lactalbumin acts as a source of essential amino acids such as tryptophan which is essential to brain maturation and to the development of neurobehavioural regulations of food intake, satiation and... Read More... Download PDF

Targeted resequencing of a milk production QTL in Bos taurus identifies novel SNP

Identifying the causal mutations underlying milk production traits in dairy cattle will increase our understanding of bovine lactation biology. Causal mutations can also be utilized for genomic selection of dairy cattle which will increase reliability of genomic estimated breeding values (gEBVs). Targeted re-sequencing of quantitative trait loci (QTL) presents an opportunity to identify causal mutation(s) underlying these regions as all genetic variation within the sequenced population, including the causal mutation, should be discovered. We selected a 2.25 mega base pair QTL on Bos taurus... Read More... Download PDF