Symposium Posters 2012

Genetic and isoform variability in relation to milk coagulation properties

In the Danish-Swedish Milk Genomics initiative, genetic and isoform variation of the major bovine milk proteins have been characterized using several proteomic techniques (Jensen et al., 1212a, b, c). Among other, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS) protein characterization revealed the presence of a variety of genetic variants of the major milk proteins, including αS1-casein (variants B and C), αS2-casein (A), β-casein (A1, A2, B, I, F), κ-casein (A, B and E), α-lactalbumin (B), and β-lactoglobulin (A, B, and C) in a milk subset selected to... Read More... Download PDF

The Immune-modulatory Potential of Novel Bio-Active Fractions Derived from Bovine Milk

 

Over the last 20 years, the rates of obesity in the UK and Ireland have more than doubled, which is largely due to a dysregulation in energy homeostasis resulting from changes in lifestyle. Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, which reflects the accumulation of immune cells in adipose tissue that then drives insulin resistance the core perturbation of Type 2 Diabetes. Thus, approaches modulating the release of pro- and anti- inflammatory cytokines may minimise the pro-inflammatory insulin resistant state. Milk is a complex biological substance and, within the Food for Health... Read More... Download PDF

Lipidomic and cytokine biomarkers for the analysis of dairy meals and diets

Metabolic disorders that increase risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease are reflected in increased levels of circulating biomarkers of inflammation and oxidation. A growing body of population based studies has demonstrated an association between dairy diets and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes1. More recent studies suggest that consumption of fermented dairy compared with non-fermented dairy products may provide cardiovascular benefits2. We sought to establish a relationship between dairy meals and diets, based on fermentation status, and the level of circulating... Read More... Download PDF

Transcriptional modulation by abundant milk protein genes in the bovine mammary gland

Objectives: A few proteins are known to be highly abundant in milk. The transcription of these milk protein genes could be expected to dilute the pool of non-abundant transcripts during lactation. Therefore, we developed a method to adjust for this dilution and investigated the degree to which non-abundant transcripts are affected during lactation. Methods: Raw count data for quantitative mRNA expression from one replicate each of bovine mammary gland tissue collected during pre-puberty and lactation was extracted from the bovine gene atlas (http://bovineatlas.arl.arizona.edu/). Technical... Read More... Download PDF

The association of non-, poor and good coagulating milk with genetic milk protein variants in three Scandinavian dairy breeds Nina Aagaard Poulsen, Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, Denmark

Screening of individual variation in technological properties of milk is of interest in order to understand underlying factors affecting these traits and ensure high quality products. Coagulation properties in milk are to a large extent determined by protein composition, which in turn is correlated with the underlying genetic polymorphism in major milk protein. As a part of the Danish-Swedish Milk Genomics Initiative, milk and tissue samples were collected from a total of 1298 Danish Holstein (DH), Danish Jersey (DJ) and Swedish Red (SR) cows. After exclusion of milk samples with high somatic... Read More... Download PDF

Identification and functional characterization of a novel monotreme-specific protein expressed during lactation

 

Monotremes are the only oviparous mammals and exhibit a fascinating combination of reptilian and mammalian characters. They represent a component of synapsidal reproduction by laying shelled eggs which are incubated outside the mother’s body. This is accompanied by a prototherian lactation process, marking them as representatives of early mammals. Platypus, a semi- aquatic carnivore and two species of Echidna, a terrestrial insectivore, are the only extant monotremes and are limited to Australia and New Guinea. Lactation in these animals is prolonged relative to gestation and incubation of... Read More... Download PDF

Estimating the wound healing ability of bioactive milk proteins using an optimized cell based assay

Milk contains many different proteins of which the larger constituents like the caseins and major whey constituents are well characterized. We have for some time been studying the structure and function of proteins associated with the milk fat globule membrane like lactadherin, MUC1/15, xanthine oxidoreductase along with minor whey constituents like osteopontin, EPV20 etc. The Enterocyte migration rate is a key parameter in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and intestinal repair when recovering from infection or intestinal diseases like Crohns and ulcerative colitis. We developed a novel in... Read More... Download PDF

Genomic regions associated with both summer and winter bovine milk fatty acids

In genome-wide association studies (GWAS) many thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are being tested for associations. In general it is expected that only a small proportion of the SNPs will have a true association and only those that have an effect that is large enough will be significant. Setting a significance threshold is finding the balance between limiting the number of false positives and maintaining sufficient power. Replication of results is a strategy to separate false positives from true associations. The aim of this study was to perform a GWAS for bovine milk fatty... Read More... Download PDF

The effects of acute diet-induced milk fat depression on ruminal lipid metabolism and lipogenic gene expression in lactating cows

Fat is the most variable component of milk and highly responsive to diet. During the onset of lactation energy requirements for milk production exceed intake with the shortfall being met through the mobilisation of body tissues. Both the extent and duration of negative energy balance is considered an important determinant of metabolic health and fertility. Controlled decreases in milk fat secretion at critical periods of lactation could be used as a means to improve energy balance and overall metabolic health and reproductive performance. High concentrate diets and dietary supplements of... Read More... Download PDF

Milk metabolite composition and its relation to nutritional and technological quality – A NMR metabolomic approach

The Danish Swedish milk Genomics Initiative aims at identifying genetically contingent differences in the metabolite profile of milk and its impact on nutritional and technological quality traits of bovine milk. For this purpose, we have collected milk and tissue samples from 1200 Danish Holstein Friesian, Danish Jersey and Swedish Red Breed. The metabolite composition of the milk was investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), which has previously been proven valuable in the assessment of the metabolite composition of body fluids. The metabolite profile of the milk was... Read More... Download PDF