Kristen Beck, Genome Center, University of California Davis, USA
Kristen Beck1, Darren Weber2, Brett Phinney2 , Jennifer Smilowitz3, Katie Hinde4, Bo Lönnerdal5, Ian Korf1, Danielle G. Lemay1
1Genome Center, University of California Davis, USA
2Proteomics Core, University of California Davis, USA
3Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California Davis, USA
4Department of Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, USA
5Department of Nutrition, University of California Davis, USA
Objective: Milk has been well established as the optimal nutrition source for infants, yet there is still much to be understood about its molecular composition in humans and non-human primates. Therefore, our objective was to develop and compare comprehensive milk proteomes for human and rhesus macaques, the most widely used non-human primate in biomedical research. This comparative biology approach highlights differences in early neonatal nutrition between the species.
Methods: Until this point, the high incidence of interfering macronutrients, pervasive post-translational modifications,... Read More...
Maria Lisson, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Justus-Liebig University, Gießen, Germany
Maria Lisson1, Natalija Novak2, Georg Erhardt1
1Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Justus-Liebig University, Gießen, Germany 2Department of Dermatology and Allergy, University of Bonn, Germany
The caseins belong to the major allergens in cow milk. Within these proteins, a noticeable genetic variation has been identified in productive and endangered cattle breeds. The genetic variants are characterized by amino acid exchanges or deletions of peptide fragments. Their importance in human nutrition, especially regarding to the allergenic potential, has not yet been adequately exploited. There is an increasing focus on the use of milk proteins from other species to identify an alternative protein sources for patients with cow milk allergy. Nevertheless, due to the high degree of amino... Read More...
Lenha Mobuchon, INRA, Saint Genès Champanelle, France
Mobuchon L1,2,3, Marthey S2, Le Guillou S2, Laloë D2, Le Provost F2 and Leroux C1,3
1INRA, UMR1213 Herbivores, F-63122 Saint-Genès-Champanelle, France
2INRA, UMR1313 Génétique Animale et Biologie Intégrative, F-78150 Jouy-en-Josas, France
3Clermont Université, VetAgro Sup, UMR1213 Herbivores, BP 10448, F-63000, Clermont-Ferrand, France
Animal nutrition considerably affects milk composition, influencing its nutritional quality for consumers. Milk components synthesis and secretion involve numerous genes some of which are nutri-regulated. Especially, a 48h food deprivation applied to lactating goats modifies the expression of 161 genes, including genes coding for major milk proteins and for lipogenic enzymes related to milk components synthesis and secretion (Ollier et al., 2007). However, the mechanism of their regulation remains unsolved. MicroRNA (miRNA) are small non coding RNA that regulate genes expression at a... Read More...
Duc Ninh Nguyen, Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
Duc Ninh Nguyen1, Pingping Jiang2, Susanne Jacobsen3, Per T. Sangild2, Stine B. Bering2, Emøke Bendixen4, Dereck E.W. Chatterton1,2
1 Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
2 Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, University of Copenhagen, Denmark
3 Department of Systems Biology, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark
4 Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Denmark
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2, an important anti-inflammatory protein in milk, possesses protective effects against intestinal inflammation by limiting the production of inflammatory cytokines. TGF-β2-fortified infant formula has shown potential in reducing the incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and associated inflammation in preterm neonates. However, the molecular mechanisms by which TGF-β2 protects immature intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) remain to be more clearly elucidated before interventions in infants can be considered. Porcine intestinal epithelial cells (IECs)... Read More...
Mina Popovic, Department of Life Science, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Modena, Italy
Human milk and its assembled glycome is known to enrich specific bifidobacterial populations in the infant gastrointestinal tract. Inactive alleles of the fucosyltransferase 2 gene (FUT2; termed “secretor” due to its role in the expression of ABO blood types in secretions) are common in many populations. Some bifidobacteria (common infant gut commensals) are known to be able to consume 2’ fucosylated glycans, such as the oligosaccharides found in the breast milk of a secretor (FUT2+) mother. This work aimed to test whether there is a difference in the ability of... Read More...
Sugeetha Ramakrishnan, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia
Sugeetha Ramakrishnan, Julie Sharp, Kevin Nicholas
School of Medicine, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia
Mammary gland involution is a physiological process associated with rapid apoptosis (programmed cell death) of the lactating mammary epithelial cells followed by remodelling of the mammary gland to a pre-pregnant state. The loss of secretory alveolar epithelium is attributed to a number of factors like mild ischemia as a result of milk engorgement and compression of vasculature, falling levels of prolactin upon cessation of suckling, factors in milk that promote cell death, physical distension of the luminal epithelium and increased activity of the basement membrane degrading enzymes (matrix... Read More...
Kristine Blans, Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Aarhus, Denmark
Introduction - Bovine milks content of phospholipid membranes have largely been explored in the cream fraction, and known as the milk fat globule membrane that surrounds fat droplets. In skim milk, the population of phospholipid membranes is reported to constitute membrane vesicles with a soluble content known as exosomes and microvesicles. These vesicles contain various types of RNA and proteins suggested to transfer health promoting messages from mother to offspring. However, the variety of the vesicles in milk is less understood, and additionally complicated by the complexity of more... Read More...
Madia Charlier, INRA, Jouy-en-Josas, France
Cathy Hue-Beauvais1, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer2, Laurent Galio2, Delphine Rousseau-Raillard2, Christine Péchoux1, Eve Devinoy1, and Madia Charlier1
INRA, UMR1313, Génétique Animale et Biologie Intégrative1, F78350, Jouy-en-Josas, France.
INRA, UMR1198, Biologie du Développement et Reproduction2, F78350, Jouy-en-Josas, France.
Obesity has become a significant worldwide health issue. Overweight and obesity, are often negatively associated with initiation and duration of breastfeeding in humans. In animal models, numerous data demonstrate the influence of nutrition on mammary growth and differentiation and highlight the importance of critical periods during which nutrition induces long-term effects on mammary development and lactation. In particular, using a model of rabbits receiving a high-fat/high-sugar obesogenic diet (OD diet) started before puberty, we have observed an accelerated development of the mammary... Read More...
Alessandra Crisa, Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura – Animal Production Research Centre (CRA-PCM)
Alessandra Crisa, Cinzia Marchitelli, Bianca Moioli
Consiglio per la Ricerca e la sperimentazione in Agricoltura – Animal Production Research Centre (CRA-PCM)
Among dairy species milk oligosaccharides are present at higher levels in goat than in bovine or ovine; moreover, because goat milk contains fucosylated oligosaccharides similar to those found in human milk, it may be used as a natural source of lactose-derived oligosaccharides in infant formulae and for the development of functional foods, having been successfully isolated by membrane technology. Oligosaccharides are defined as carbohydrates that are synthesized in the mammary gland and contain between 3 and 10 monosaccharides covalently linked through glycosidic bonds. Lactose... Read More...
Marc Andreu Garcia Cruz, Laboratorios Ordesa, Spain
Garcia-Cruz MA1, Rodriguez-Palmero M1, Puigjaner J1, Martínez-Cue C2, García-Fuentes M2, Rosell E3, Lalanne E3, Rivero M1. 1Laboratorios Ordesa, Spain. 2Univesity of Cantabria, Spain. 3Oryzon Genomics, Spain.
There is evidence that infants who were breastfed perform better scores on intelligence tests than those who were fed with infant formula. It is likely that these benefits are due to certain nutrients that are in more quantity in human breast milk than in cow’s milk. Particularly important are the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), but also certain phospholipids, glycolipids or other compounds such as sialic acid. In previous work, it has been observed that supplementation with whey protein concentrate enriched with milk fat globule... Read More...