Jaime Salcedo, Dept. of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, USA
J. Salcedo1, S.A. Frese1, A. Mudd3, R.N. Dilger3,4, M. Chichlowski5, B.M. Berg5, D.A. Mills1,2, and D. Barile1,2
1. Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis;
2. Foods for Health Institute, University of California, Davis;
3. Piglet Nutrition & Cognition Laboratory, University of Illinois, Urbana;
4. Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois, Urbana;
5. Mead Johnson Pediatric Nutrition Institute, Evansville, IN
Swine are an excellent animal model because their digestive system physiopathology and anatomical structure, as well as the developing brain structure and immune system bear a striking resemblance to the human infant.
Glycosylated milk components are known to exert beneficial effects on human health, including protection against bacterial infection, prebiotic activity, support of brain development and modulation of the immune system.
In the present work, we report the characterization and quantification of oligosaccharides and glycolipids in porcine milk during lactation and associate these with the pig fecal metagenome.
Milk samples were manually obtained from 3 adult Yorkshire/Hampshire pigs one day before farrowing (pre-colostrum), at farrowing (colostrum) and at days 7 and 14 post-farrowing, while fecal samples were obtained at days 14 (suckling) and 35 (weaned) after birth from the piglets fed with the analyzed milk. Milk oligosaccharides (OS) were identified by nano LC-Chip QToF, and selected OS were quantified by High-Performance Anionic Exchange Chromatography with Pulsed Amperometric Detection (HPAE-PAD). Gangliosides GM3 and GD3 were quantified using a UHPLC-MS/MS, while fecal microbiome was sequenced using shotgun metagenomics.
Porcine milk OS composition shifts during lactation. During the first days of lactation acidic OS are the most abundant. As lactation progresses an increase in neutral and fucosylated OS is observed. The total content of gangliosides (as well as the gangliosides GM3 and GD3) vary in content across lactation. Interestingly, the fecal microbiota composition appears to be shaped by the porcine milk OS such that a change in the sialic acid and fucose consuming taxa correlated with variations the respective concentrations of these OS in sow milk.
This study presents the first comprehensive characterization of the types and abundance of glycosylated compounds in porcine milk, and highlights striking similarities with human milk. The potential role of OS in shaping microbiome composition in piglets requires further investigation but appears to represent an excellent model for investigation of interventions that may benefit the human formula fed infant.Download PDF