Presentations from the Symposium on Milk Genomics and Human Health

Characterization of the differences in the host defense proteome of human and bovine milk

Milk is the single source of nutrients for the newborn mammal. During evolution, the composition of milk of different mammals has been adapted to fulfill the needs of the newborn. Milk not only provides nutrients, but also serves as a medium for transfer of host defense components to the newborn. The host defense proteome of milk from different mammalian species is expected to reveal signatures of evolution. Because bovine milk is used as a substitute for human milk, it is important to know the differences in host defense proteome between human and bovine milk. Despite the description of... Read More... Download PDF

Long-term effects of nutrition on mammary gland development and milk composition leading to offspring predisposition to obesity

Mammary epithelial growth and differentiation are tightly modulated by several hormonal and metabolic signals (Hennighausen and Robinson, 2005). Altered nutrition, leading to differences in the body weight, during the major developmental steps of this organ may be of critical importance (Sejrsen, 1994). In order to understand the impact of nutrition on mammary gland development and lactation, changes to the nutritional status of various animal models have been made in order to alter the metabolic environment. In cattle, an increased growth rate due to a high feeding level during puberty has... Read More... Download PDF

Understanding milk protein complexity to produce accurate phenotypes

Presented by: Christelle Cebo

Milk is a complete and complex food containing a large number of biomolecules such as lipids, sugars and proteins. As far as proteins are concerned, they are found either at the colloidal state (micelles), soluble in the whey or associated with the fat globule membrane. For many years, milk has been considered as a raw material of which processing or “cracking” concentrated most of the added value. Therefore, the breeding target was over the past 30 years to produce larger amounts of milk with a high overall protein content, while controlling fat content, at the expense of quality and... Read More... Download PDF

Dutch Milk Genomics Initiative: towards implementation

Dutch Milk Genomics Initiative: towards implementation Johan van Arendonk, Robert Demeter, Marc Rutten, Marleen Visker and Henk Bovenhuis Animal Breeding and Genomics Centre, Wageningen University, the Netherlands Business Economics Group, Wageningen University, the Netherlands In the Dutch Milk Genomics Initiative we have shown that there is substantial genetic variation in content and composition of both milk fat and milk protein. Part of the genetic variation in milk-fat content and composition can be attributed to polymorphisms in genes such as DGAT1 and SCD1, while part of the genetic... Read More... Download PDF

Combining gene expression data with SNP association studies to identify genes effecting bovine milk production traits

It has been argued that microarray technology is becoming somewhat obsolete and being superseded by the more recent methodologies of next generation sequencing (in particular RNA-seq). However, there are still many instances where the use of microarrays is preferable. When transcript profiling in model organisms with well-annotated genomes, microarrays have the advantage of having low-cost, short turn-around time, quantitative accuracy, robust sample processing and well-established analysis-pipelines. In this study, we aim to identify genes critical for bovine milk production by examining a... Read More... Download PDF

Industry perspective

Traditional application of Genetic systems is through progeny test systems.The distribution of genotypes by AI throughout the country is achieved via semen distribution and dairy farmers participating in a progeny test program. Associated linkages and comparative evaluation of performance provides the ability to estimate relative genetic performance for specific... Read More... Download PDF

Effects of in utero exposure to dietary conjugated linoleic acid on mammary gland development in Balb/cJ mice

Conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) are isomers of octadecadienoic acid (18:2 n6) found in ruminant-derived food products, predominantly as cis-9, trans-11 CLA (9,11 CLA). Spreadable animal fat substitutes and weight loss supplements are generally mixtures of 9,11 CLA and trans-10, cis-12 CLA (10,12 CLA). These isomers have markedly different biological effects. Notably, 10,12 CLA intake reduces adiposity while inducing hepatic steatosis and insulin resistance. Both 9,11 CLA and 10,12 CLA have been proposed to afford anti-cancer properties given their ability to inhibit the growth of experimental... Read More... Download PDF

Breastmilk stem cells have multi-lineage differentiation potential

Only the abstract is available for posting

The mammary gland undergoes a proliferation and differentiation program during pregnancy and lactation, which can be repeated at various pregnancies during the life of the female. Key to this program are mammary stem cells localised in a specialised niche of the gland. To understand the cellular hierarchy of the human lactating breast, we non-invasively accessed mammary cells from breastmilk and characterised the different subpopulations present. A great heterogeneity was observed in the cellular composition of breastmilk, including early-stage stem cells that expressed embryonic stem cell... Read More... Download PDF

Matrigel signals abnormal development of Cape fur seal primary mammary cells, possibly through the activation of the TGFß pathway.

The Cape fur seal is a sea mammal, belonging to the Pinnipedia family, who presents an unusual model of lactation. Indeed, contrary to the other sea mammals, the body of the fur seal is not big enough to store bubbler layer allowing it to remain on-shore for a long period of time without eating. Thus, this animal feeds its pup on-shore only for few days before foraging alone at sea for up to 4 weeks (cycle carrying out for about 10 months). Interestingly, during this foraging time, the mammary gland does not enter into the involution process despite the absence of sucking, which normally... Read More... Download PDF