Symposium Oral Presentations 2011

Matrigel signals abnormal development of Cape fur seal primary mammary cells, possibly through the activation of the TGFß pathway.

The Cape fur seal is a sea mammal, belonging to the Pinnipedia family, who presents an unusual model of lactation. Indeed, contrary to the other sea mammals, the body of the fur seal is not big enough to store bubbler layer allowing it to remain on-shore for a long period of time without eating. Thus, this animal feeds its pup on-shore only for few days before foraging alone at sea for up to 4 weeks (cycle carrying out for about 10 months). Interestingly, during this foraging time, the mammary gland does not enter into the involution process despite the absence of sucking, which normally... Read More... Download PDF

Market and Technology Opportunities in Gut Health: A novel strategy for functional synbiotics

Probiotic Market Developments and Technology Evolution: Cost driven mass markets: Dairy commodity marketing, Culture selection based on milk growth, stability, cost. Marketing “buzz”, popular perception, folk lore Market differentiation, New, higher value channels, Innovation based on novel formulation and delivery Innovation Opportunities, Identify groups with specific digestive or other gut issues, Use new technologies to validate product functionality Targeted benefits for demo groups to allow capture of highest added... Read More... Download PDF

A comparison of mammary gland transcriptome and milk proteome

The global market for functional foods and nutraceuticals is growing substantially, with an estimated value in excess of $100bn. The development of these products is largely dependent on identification of naturally occurring bioactive molecules. Milk is a complex food and a rich source of biologically active proteins that provide an opportunity to develop functional dairy products. Recent advances in bovine genome sequencing, and the development of post-genomic tools, has provided a mechanism to annotate the mammary gland transcriptome and identify potential novel protein-derived milk... Read More... Download PDF

In-silico approach to generating and protecting milk bioactives.

The extent of which bioinformatics approaches aid in detecting novel bioactive peptides is limited in many areas such as the food area. As part of Food for Health Ireland (FHI) we set out to predict bioactive peptides found in bovine milk proteins. The bioactivity of these predicted peptides was tested on 4 health pillars (such as metabolic health consisting in weight management & glycaemic control. And inflammation and antimicrobial activities) with the aim of developing new functional foods. We developed new techniques and methods to enable researchers to focus on the most meaningful areas... Read More... Download PDF

Differences in pathogen-sugar interactions between human and bovine milk glycoproteins.

Human milk is composed of a potent mixture of protective agents including free sugars, specific antibiotics and anti-microbial proteins that form the innate immune system to protect against microbial pathogens and disease. Bovine milk and formula-based products do not contain the same components. Milk contains sugar epitopes that are similar to the receptors on the gut epithelial surface that can competitively bind to and remove disease-causing microorganisms before they are able to attach to the gut and infect infants. An example of this includes the free oligosaccharide (α1,2)-fucosylated... Read More... Download PDF

The Glycobiology of Milk

Human milk has been found to contain a high concentration and diversity of soluble oligosaccharides, carbohydrate polymers formed from a relatively small number of different monosaccharides that remarkably infants cannot digest. The structures and diversity of these oligosaccharides follow the general pattern of mammalian and primate evolution. The function that provides a selective advantage to their presence in milk has been shown to be the carbon source to a select group of intestinal symbiotic bacteria, notably Bifidobacteria longum biovar infantis. This bacterium is able to grow... Read More... Download PDF

Sialic acid is involved in the differential binding of streptococcal species to milk and salivary glycoproteins.

The flow of human saliva constantly bathes the mouth and is thought to provide several mechanisms of innate immune protection against the huge number of micro-organisms to which the oral cavity is exposed; a similar mechanism is postulated for the oligosaccharides in milk as a protection against infant infection. Streptococcus gordonii is an early coloniser of human tooth enamel, whereas S. mutans colonises at a later stage in the development of the biofilm involved in the formation of dental caries. The glycoprotein component of saliva and milk is known to have antimicrobial properties and... Read More... Download PDF

Evolution of lactation: Nutrition versus protection

The evolutionary origin of the mammary gland has been difficult to establish because little knowledge can be gained on the origin of soft tissue organs from fossil evidence. One approach to resolve the origin of lactation has compared the anatomy of existing primitive mammals to skin glands, whilst another has examined the metabolic and molecular synergy between mammary gland development and the innate immune system. We have reviewed the physiology of lactation in five mammalian species with special reference to these theories. In all species, milk fulfils dual functions of providing... Read More... Download PDF