Symposium Oral Presentations 2012

Protection from childhood asthma and allergies by consumption of unprocessed cow’s milk

Children from rural areas in Europe growing up on farms are at a significantly lower risk for developing asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic sensitisation than children living in the same rural area, but not growing up on farms. This protective ‘farm effect’ has been reported in more than 30 studies across Europe, but also in Canada and New Zealand. The risk of childhood asthma and allergic disease is at least halved by the protective ‘farm exposures’ and this protection is sustained into adult life. One major determinant of the protection encountered in farming... Read More... Download PDF

The Swedish-Danish Milk Genomics Initiative: Variation in milk phenotypes, effect on milk properties and underlying genetic influence in three Scandinavian breeds

Nutritional and technological properties of bovine milk are important not only for overall milk quality, but not the least for exploitation of milk at the dairies and the potential for further differentiation of milk based products. Identification of genetic markers for improved milk quality can potentially be implemented, with the aim to improve e.g. cheese yield or nutritional properties by selective breeding. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) permit identification of QTLs (quantitative trait loci) affecting milk composition, which will improve our knowledge on candidate genes... Read More... Download PDF

Maternal obesity in the agouti viable yellow (Avy) mouse produces defective secretory activation that is associated with mammary inflammation and activation of adrenocorticosteroid-dependent gene expression

 

Maternal obesity is known to interfere with normal lactation in women, rodents, and dairy animals. Obesity is also correlated with profound changes in an array of endocrine factors and is causally linked with inflammation and insulin resistance. Recent work suggests that elevated aldosterone acting through mineralocorticoid receptor is responsible for M1 polarization of tissue macrophages leading to inflammation and insulin resistance during obesity. The Avy mouse is a monogenic model of obesity. The primary cause of obesity in this model is overexpression of the agouti gene, which produces... Read More... Download PDF

Growing a mammary gland: it’s all about hormones

A successful lactation reflects adequate mammary gland growth and differentiation that are tightly regulated by the endocrine environment. Not surprisingly, breast cancer risk is also extremely sensitive to these cues. Hormones from the ovary (estrogen and progesterone) and pituitary (prolactin) all independently modulate mammary gland growth and differentiation. However, the endocrine regulation of human breast development and function, as well as the interactive effects of these hormones in any species, has remained unclear. Using the mammary glands of pigs as a unique and authentic model... Read More... Download PDF

Post-genomic deciphering of host-microbe communication in the human intestine

 

The human gastrointestinal tract harbours a complex community of microbes, which plays a prominent role in human health. Metagenomics has started to shed light on the functional repertoire of the intestinal microbiota. This repertoire and its variation between healthy and diseased individuals opens avenues for microbiota based diagnostics, as well as rationalization of microbiota management strategies using nutritional interventions aiming to modulate the health status of the consumer. Despite these advances, it is important to realise that the microbiota composition varies between... Read More... Download PDF

Nutrigenomics: The smart combination of genomics and molecular nutrition research to study metabolic health

Until recently, nutritional research concentrated on nutrient deficiencies and impairment of health. The advent of genomics - interpreted broadly as a suite of high-throughput technologies for the generation, processing, and application of scientific information about the composition and functions of genomes - has created unprecedented opportunities for increasing our understanding of how nutrients modulate gene and protein expression and ultimately influence cellular and organismal metabolism. Nutrigenomics is combining molecular nutrition research strategies with applications of... Read More... Download PDF

Understanding the regulation of milk lipid synthesis and secretion

 

Neonates of most species depend on milk lipids for calories, vitamins and bioactive lipid components necessary for growth and development during the postnatal period. To meet neonatal nutrition and development needs, the mammary gland has evolved efficient mechanisms for the synthesizing and secreting large quantities of lipid during lactation. Although the biochemical steps involved in milk lipid synthesis are understood, the genes mediating these steps and the molecular machinery responsible for synthesis and packaging milk lipids for secretion have only recently begun to be understood in... Read More... Download PDF

The extracellular matrix modulates asynchronous concurrent lactation in tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii)

The extracellular matrix modulates asynchronous concurrent lactation in tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) In contrast to eutherians, the reproductive cycle of the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii) consists of a short gestation (P1) leading to the birth of an altricial young and a long lactation. Tammar lactation has previously been divided into three post-parturition phases (2A, 2B and 3) characterised by progressive remodelling of the mammary gland and profound changes in milk composition. After milk stasis the mammary gland progresses to involution (INV) and reverts to resemble a... Read More... Download PDF

Identification and quantification of milk synthesis and secretion related proteins in bovine milk using a proteomics approach

Lactation physiology is a process that is still partly understood. Proteomics techniques have shown to be useful to help advance the knowledge on lactation physiology in human and rodent species but is rarely used for dairy cows, except for mastitis. In fact, many aspects in bovine milk secretion still need to be investigated in detail and advanced proteomics techniques can help to improve this knowledge. Filter-aided sample preparation (FASP) and NanoLC-Orbitrap-MS/MS were applied to milk fat globule membrane and serum fractions which were isolated from bovine tank milk samples (65 Holstein... Read More... Download PDF

Serial translocation via circular intermediates underlies color-sidedness in cattle

Colour sidedness is a dominantly inherited phenotype of cattle characterized by the polarization of pigmented sectors on the flanks, snout and ear tips. It is also referred to as 'lineback' or 'witrik' (which means white back), as colour-sided animals typically display a white band along their spine. Colour sidedness is documented at least since the Middle Ages and is presently segregating in several cattle breeds around the globe, including in Belgian blue and brown Swiss. We have demonstrated that colour sidedness is determined by a first allele on chromosome 29 (Cs(29)), which results from... Read More... Download PDF