Jeffrey I. Gordon, Center for Genome Sciences and Systems Biology, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO 63108
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Our genetic landscape is a summation of the genes embedded in our human genome and in the genomes of the tens of trillions of microbes that inhabit our body surfaces. Similarly, our metabolic features are an amalgamation of human and microbial contributions. Therefore, understanding our ‘human’ biology and the foundations of our health as well as disease predispositions means that we must characterize how our microbial communities assemble/mature following birth, and what functions they express during the course of our lives. The results should provide an additional perspective about how... Read More...
Jennifer T. Smilowitz1,4 , Danielle G. Lemay2,4, Angela M. Zivkovic1,4, J. Bruce German1,4, Karen M. Kalanetra3,4, David Mills1,3,4, Carolyn Slupsky1,4, Elizabeth Chin1,4, Daniela Barile1,4
1Food Science & Technology Departme, 2Genome Center, 3Viticulture and Enology Department, 4 Foods for Health Institute, University of California Davis
The intestinal microbiome is recognized as an important determinant of health and has become a critical area of study for functional foods. Probiotics and prebiotics are widely used alternative therapies for intestinal health. There is an unmet need for selective, scientifically validated strategies to guide the intestinal microbiome towards protective populations. Mechanistic research has led to the understanding of the unique evolutionary relationship between complex milk oligosaccharides and cognate Bifidobacteria enriched in breast-fed infants. Bovine milk oligosaccharides (BMO) were... Read More...
Giuliana D. Noratto 1, Luis Condezo-Hoyos1, Gerhard R. Munske2, Paulina M. Pilla3
1School of Food Science, 2School of Molecular Biosciences, Washington State University, 3Panamerican School of Agriculture, Zamorano, Honduras
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Several studies are focusing on food bioactive compounds that can potentially reach the colon and modulate gut bacterial populations to help prevent obesity and obesity related chronic diseases. Cheese is the number one product for the dairy industry in the U.S. and several studies have reported that aged cheese contain protein derived compounds that might provide health benefits. We investigated major changes on proteins of American cheddar cheese during ripening up to 24 months and effects on bacterial populations in fecal fermentations of obese mice.
Results showed that... Read More...
Z. T. Lewis1,4, S. G. Totten2,4, J. Smilowitz3,4, D. G. Lemay5, K. M.
Kalanetra1,4, M. Ryazantseva1,4, J. B. German3,4, C. B. Lebrilla2,4, D. A. Mills1,3,4*
1Department of Viticulture and Enology, UC Davis, 2Department of Chemistry, UC Davis, 3Department of Food Science and Technology, UC Davis, 4Foods For Health Institute, UC Davis, 5Genome Center, UC Davis
Humans possess many enzymes responsible for the glycosylation of various substrates, and individuals vary in their functional repertoire of these glycosyl transferases. Inactive alleles of the fucosyltransferase 2 gene (FUT2; termed “secretor” due to its role in the expression of ABO blood types in secretions) are common in many populations. Several health-related effects of expressing only glycoforms lacking in 2’ fucosylation (as non-secretors do) have been shown, although the mechanism for these effects is not always clear. Select members of the genus Bifidobacterium (common infant... Read More...
Bokyung Lee and Maria L Marco
Department of Food Science & Technology, University of California, Davis
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Milk and other dairy products are the primary food carriers of probiotics to the gastrointestinal tract to promote health. Presently, it is unclear whether the bioactives in milk contribute directly to health benefits observed for probiotic-containing dairy products or, alternatively, the milk matrix influences probiotic physiology, and hence, efficacy in the gut. In this study, the contributions of milk to the health-benefiting performance of probiotic Lactobacillus casei were investigated in a murine model. We found that the incubation of L. casei BL23 in milk at 4°C increased the... Read More...
Dave Mills, Department of Food Science and Technology, Department of Viticulture and Enology and Helen Raybould, UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis
Probiotics and prebiotics are diet-based interventions frequently employed to promote intestinal health and wellness. The presence of beneficial bacteria such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, whether delivered exogenously as probiotics or enriched via prebiotics, has been linked to positive health effects including reduction of gut inflammation, diarrhea and allergic reactions. At present however, an understanding of the mechanism(s) of action underlying these biological effects is lacking. Milk oligosaccharides are naturally-evolved prebiotic substrates that facilitate bifidobacterial... Read More...
David A. Sela*, Daniel A. Garrido, Danielle Lemay, and David A. Mills
Department of Food Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003 (DAS)
School of Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Chile (DAG)
Food for Health Institute, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (DL & DAM)
Species belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium often constitute a large fraction of the infant’s colonic microbiota. Likewise, most Bifidobacterium species form commensal partnerships with their hosts and are regarded as beneficial in several capacities. It is believed that specific bifidobacteria are nourished, and thus enriched, by soluble oligosaccharides present in mother’s milk. The prominent infant-associated commensal B. longum subsp. infantis (B. infantis) deploys an array of solute binding proteins to facilitate import of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) prior intracellular... Read More...
Hyeyoung Leea,c, Daniel Garridob,c,d, David A. Millsb,c, Daniela Barilea,c*
a. Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, United States, b. Department of Viticulture and Enology, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, United States, c. Foods for Health Institute, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, United States, d. Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, Chile
Milk gangliosides are anionic glycolipids that consist of a carbohydrate moiety and a ceramide lipid portion. The carbohydrate moiety is composed of monosaccharides that include sialic acids, e.g., N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), glucose, galactose and other monosaccharides. Recently gangliosides have gained considerable attention because they participate in diverse biological processes, including neural development, pathogen binding, and activation of the immune system. Milk gangliosides also appear to modify the intestinal ecology of newborns, stimulating growth of bifidobacteria and... Read More...
Bruce German, Foods for Health Institute, Department of Food Science & Technology, University of California, Davis
The Milk Genomics Consortium was established over a decade ago by a group of intrepid scientists to harness the emerging power of genomics to understand the most valuable subset of the phylogentic tree of life: lactation. At the time, only a very few genomes had been sequenced to entirety. Thus, their task was daunting, to assemble the complete complement of genes of lactation and annotate them for their functions. While their task was bold, their vision was tantalizing. The problems of diet, from food safety to health, from stability to sustainability are challenging all of the life... Read More...
Katie Hinde, Human Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts
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Among mammals, mother's milk provides structural materials and hormonal signals necessary for infant development. Where the ontogenetic priorities diverge between sons and daughters, from either the mother’s or the infant’s perspective, sex-differentiated milk synthesis or milk assimilation may emerge. In recent years sex-differentiated milk synthesis has been reported in numerous mammals including ungulates, primates, rodents, and marsupials. Differences in milk macro-constituents, minerals, hormones, and volume may favor of sons or daughters depending on their developmental needs or... Read More...