Symposium Oral Presentations 2014

Genomics and Ruminomics

John Wallace, Professor, Rowett Institute of Nutrition and Health, University of Aberdeen, Scotland

A collaborative, large-scale integrating project named ‘RuminOmics’ (project no. 289319) was commissioned in 2012 under the EC’s Seventh Framework Programme: Food, Agriculture, Fisheries and Biotechnology. Its title is Ruminomics: Connecting the animal genome, gastrointestinal microbiomes and nutrition to improve digestion efficiency and the environmental impacts of ruminant livestock production. The RuminOmics project is exploring genomics, metagenomics and metaproteomic technologies to try to understand how the rumen microbial community influences feed efficiency and particularly... Read More... Download PDF

Bovine Genomic Selection Today – Possibilities to Improve Novel Milk Traits through Genomic Selection

Hans Stålhammar, Chief Geneticist, VikingGenetics, Sweden

The genetic trend in major dairy cattle breeds have been driven by large progeny testing schemes. Sires of sons were exclusive daughter proven bulls and a very large proportion of sold doses were from this category of bulls. In 2008 54K SNP panels became available for the AI-industry and a large number of daughter proven bulls were genotyped. The blended index, combining pedigree and genomic information, had a considerable higher reliability than the pedigree index and the situation is today very different. 2014 a great majority of the highest ranked bulls are young bulls without progeny... Read More... Download PDF

Student Travel Award Recipient – Epitope Mapping of αS1-Casein by Microarray Immunoassay Reveals Differences in Ige Binding within Dairy Breeds and Between Water Buffaloes, Sheep, Goats

Maria Lisson, Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Justus-Liebig University, Gießen, Germany

Maria Lisson1, Natalija Novak2, Georg Erhardt1
1Department of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Justus-Liebig University, Gießen, Germany 2Department of Dermatology and Allergy, University of Bonn, Germany

The caseins belong to the major allergens in cow milk. Within these proteins, a noticeable genetic variation has been identified in productive and endangered cattle breeds. The genetic variants are characterized by amino acid exchanges or deletions of peptide fragments. Their importance in human nutrition, especially regarding to the allergenic potential, has not yet been adequately exploited. There is an increasing focus on the use of milk proteins from other species to identify an alternative protein sources for patients with cow milk allergy. Nevertheless, due to the high degree of amino... Read More... Download PDF

Genetic Analysis of Micro- and Macro-elements in Danish Holstein and Danish Jersey Milk

A.J. Buitenhuis, Associate Professor,
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics – Center for Quantitative Genetics and Genomics, Aarhus University, Denmark

A.J. Buitenhuis1, N.A. Poulsen2, L.B. Larsen2, J. Sehested3

1Center for Quantitative Genetics and Genomics, Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Aarhus University, Blichers Allee 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark, 2Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, Blichers Allee 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark, 3Department of Animal Science, Aarhus University, Blichers Allee 20, P.O. Box 50, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark.

Minerals in the milk are important to milk technological properties like casein micelle stability, and to the nutritional value of milk. Minerals of milk origin are considered to have a high availability to humans and animals as compared to most other food mineral sources. In this study we try to find the genetic components underlying the mineral content in the milk based on 400 Danish Holstein (DH) and 400 Danish Jersey (DJ) cows in mid-lactation. In total the content of ten different elements (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Se, and Zn) were extracted from skimmed milk by acid sonication and... Read More... Download PDF

Quantification of Individual Milk Fatty Acids by Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemometrics: In the Cage of Covariance with Total Fat Content

C. E. Eskildsen*, M. A. Rasmussen*, S. B. Engelsen*, L. B. Larsen†, N. A. Poulsen†, T. Skov*
*Department of Food Science, University of Copenhagen, DK-1958 Frederiksberg, Denmark
†Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, DK-8830 Tjele, Denmark
E-mail: carle@food.ku.dk

High-throughput methods to predict detailed milk composition including the fatty acid (FA) profile is highly desired as it would open possibilities for e.g. more efficient breeding. Several studies have investigated the potential of predicting the FA profile of milk using Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression applied to Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) measurements. In general, these studies found that a large number of FA could be predicted accurately and precise. However, covariations amongst the individual FA, total fat content and other factors giving rise to distinct absorption... Read More... Download PDF

Protein Quality in a Sustainable Context

Toon van Hooijdonk, Professor, Agrotechnology & Food Sciences, Wageningen University, The Netherlands

Supplying a growing population with sufficient food is one of the world’s major challenges. Evaluating the position of dairy in a diet should both take the nutritional and environmental impact in to account. Dairy products are nutrient rich and an important food group for food and nutrient security in the future. Protein is the most important macronutrient with respect to the constraints of limiting land and global warming. Both the quantity and the quality of protein are determinants for resource efficiency. On global basis live stock products provide 35% of the protein in the human diet... Read More... Download PDF

In-Silico Genomic Approaches to Understanding Lactation, Mammary Development, and Breast Cancer

Darryl L. Hadsell Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics,
USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine, USA

Darryl L. Hadsell1, Walter Olea1, LouAnn Hadsell1, Michael A. Grusak1, Monique Rijnkels1, Chad Creighton2, Timothy Cox3, Ian Smyth4, Kieran Short4, Jerry Wei5, Peter Williamson5.

1Department of Pediatrics, USDA/ARS Children’s Nutrition Research Center, Baylor College of Medicine
2Department of Medicine, Baylor College of medicine 3Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington
4Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Monash University
5Department of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney

Lactation-‐ related traits are influenced by genetics. From a quantitative standpoint, these traits have been well studied in dairy species, but there has also been work on the genetics of lactation in humans and mice. In addition, there is evidence to support the notion that other mammary gland traits including those describing mammary ductal development as well as risk for breast cancer are also genetically regulated. Previous work in our laboratory using in-‐ silico genome wide association (GWAS) has identified several quantitative trait loci (QTL) that could drive some of the... Read More... Download PDF

Comparative Genomics of Monotremes, Marsupials, and Pinnipeds: Models to Examine the Function of Milk Proteins

Julie Sharp, Research Fellow, Centre for Biotechnology and Interdisciplinary Sciences, Deakin University, Australia

Julie A. Sharp, Christophe Lefevre and Kevin Nicholas
School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, 3214, Australia.

The composition of milk includes all the factors required to provide appropriate nutrition for growth of the neonate. However, it is now clear that milk has many functions and also consists of bioactive molecules that play a central role in regulating developmental processes in the young and providing a protective function for both the suckled young and the mammary gland during milk production. Identifying these bioactives and their physiological function in eutherians can be difficult and requires extensive screening of milk components that may function to meet the demand for foods that... Read More... Download PDF

Student Travel Award Recipient – The Relationship Between Milk Proteins and Extracellular Matrix in Regulating Murine Mammary Gland Involution

Sugeetha Ramakrishnan, School of Medicine, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia

Sugeetha Ramakrishnan, Julie Sharp, Kevin Nicholas
School of Medicine, Deakin University, Victoria, Australia

Mammary gland involution is a physiological process associated with rapid apoptosis (programmed cell death) of the lactating mammary epithelial cells followed by remodelling of the mammary gland to a pre-pregnant state. The loss of secretory alveolar epithelium is attributed to a number of factors like mild ischemia as a result of milk engorgement and compression of vasculature, falling levels of prolactin upon cessation of suckling, factors in milk that promote cell death, physical distension of the luminal epithelium and increased activity of the basement membrane degrading enzymes (matrix... Read More... Download PDF