Symposium Oral Presentations 2015

Milk Genomics: How Lactation Can Teach Us about Lifelong Health

Bruce German, Foods for Health Institute, University of California, Davis, USA

Chronic and degenerative diseases from obesity to autoimmunity are epidemic around the world and will afflict more than half the world’s population. Thus, the opportunities facing food development by improving human health are epic. Precision medicine is the emerging field that takes a more personalized approach to therapeutic intervention to address these diseases. However, these conditions arise gradually within individuals through imbalances of systemic processes (metabolism, physiology, immunity) for which traditional pharmacologic interventions using targeted small molecules are... Read More... Download PDF

Emerging Hot Topics in Milk Science

Danielle Lemay, University of California Davis Genome Center, Davis, USA

In April 2012, the IMGC began publishing an e-newsletter, “SPLASH! milk science update,” which features four articles on emerging topics in milk science each month—that’s 48 new articles on milk science each year. By the time of the IMGC conference in 2015, we will have published 168 articles! This talk will reveal the most exciting milk science topics of the previous 12 months. It will also include a behind-the-scenes tour of “SPLASH! milk science update,”: who are the current writers and editors, how topics are selected, and the basics of our publication cycle. The SPLASH!... Read More... Download PDF

Cow Milk-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Possess Immunoregulatory – and Anti-Inflammatory Activities and Oral Administration Ameliorates Experimental Arthritis

Fons van de Loo, Experimental Rheumatology, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands

Recently extracellular vesicles that contain proteins and microRNAs (miRNA), are detected in human and cow milk but their biological function has not yet been described. We isolated extracellular vesicles (EVs) from commercially available semi-skimmed bovine milk by ultracentrifugation. The isolated EVs showed an average size of about 100nm using different techniques (DLS, NTA, AF4), and confirmed by electron microscopy. Proteomic analysis identified 64 proteins and some are characteristic for EVs (CD63, CD81, Rab-1b, actin, myosin-XIX), while others are precursors of secreted milk proteins... Read More... Download PDF

Supplementation with Bifidobacterium Infantis in Combination with Bioactive Milk Components to Alter Microbial Composition in Children with Autism

Megan Sanctuary, Department of Nutrition, University of California, Davis, USA

Megan R. Sanctuary, MS 1,2, Jennifer T. Smilowitz, PhD 2,3, David Mills, PhD 2,3, J. Bruce German, PhD 2,3, Paul Ashwood, PhD 4,5, Kathleen Angkustsiri, MD 5,6
1 Department of Nutrition, University of California at Davis, CA,
2 Foods for Health Institute, University of California at Davis, CA,
3 Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California at Davis, CA
4 Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, CA,
5 MIND Institute, University of California at Davis, Sacramento, CA,
6 Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, University of California at Davis, CA

A feature of the evolution of lactation is the explicit development of a symbiotic relationship between microorganisms and the mammalian host that is absolutely essential for proper physiological function. Human milk guides the colonization and composition of the infant gut microbiota more than any other environmental factor and compelling evidence is emerging that a milk-oriented microbiota (MOM) guides the development of various systemic processes (immunity, metabolism, neurological networks) and sets the infant up for a lifetime of health, including optimal neurodevelopment. The extent of... Read More... Download PDF

Metabolic Programming in Utero – How a Mother’s Diet Shapes Her Child’s Future

Jennie Brand-Miller, School of Molecular Biosciences and Boden Institute of Obesity,
Nutrition and Exercise, University of Sydney, Australia

In fetal life, tissues and organs undergo critical periods of rapid development and cell division. According to the Barker hypothesis, the future physiological attributes of an organism are being defined from the moment of conception. Metabolic programming is orchestrated through epigenetic events, including histone modification and methylation of DNA. In this way, genes become up or down-regulated for specific biological functions. The mother’s diet plays an important role in the metabolic programming of her fetus, preparing it for the environment after birth in which it has the best... Read More... Download PDF

Sensor Derived Health Phenotypes for Improved Dairy Cattle Management and Genetic Selection

Cameron Clark, Dairy Science Group, The University of Sydney, Camden, Australia
Cameron Clark1, Jennie Pryce2, Kendra Kerrisk1, Sergio Garcia1
1 Dairy Science Group, The University of Sydney, Camden, NSW, 2570, 2 DEDJTR, Victoria; School of Applied Systems Biology, La Trobe University

 

Before the advent of machine milking, small numbers of dairy cows per farm enabled farmers to ‘know’ each animal, often on an individual name basis. Cows were milked by hand and any deviation in the quality/appearance of milk, and general animal health, was detected early. Over the past 20 years, the Australian dairy industry average herd size has more than doubled with large herds (>600 cows) becoming the norm as farmers strive for increased efficiency. In this regard, 19% of Australia’s dairy farms now produce over half of the national milk supply. Such large herds have been enabled... Read More... Download PDF

Harnessing the Benefit of Functional Genomics Information When Combining Two Unrelated Populations for Genomic Selection

Antonio Reverter, CSIRO Agriculture Flagship, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, St. Lucia, Australia
Laercio R. Porto-Neto, Sigrid A. Lehnert and Antonio Reverter*
CSIRO Agriculture Flagship, Queensland Bioscience Precinct, St. Lucia, QLD 4067, Australia

Background: The success of genomic prediction strategies in animal breeding hinges on the availability of a large reference population upon which to build the genomic-based predictions of additive genetic or breeding value. Here we explore the benefit of using functional genomics information when combining two unrelated populations into a single reference population. Methods: The datasets we use consist of 1,829 Brahman and 1,973 Tropical Composite cattle with measurements on five phenotypes of relevance to tropical adaptation and genotypes for 71,726 genome-wide single nucleotide... Read More... Download PDF

Collection of Data for the Genetic Improvement of Health Traits in Australian Dairy Cattle

Mary Abdelsayed, Faculty of Veterinary Science, The University of Sydney, Camden, Australia

M. Abdelsayed1*, P. Douglas1, J.E. Pryce2
1Holstein Australia, Hawthorn East, VIC, 3122, 2 Department of Economic Development, Jobs, Transport and Resources, Government of Victoria Bundoora, VIC, 3083

A growing concern for dairy farmers is the improvement of dairy cow health through genetic selection. Healthy cows are more productive, easier to manage, require less intervention, have improved animal welfare and contribute to profitability by reducing production costs. However, in many countries, including Australia, industry collection of data on common health events has been sub-optimal or absent, which means there is no ability to provide breeding values and apply genetic selection for common health disorders. Also, such traits are low in heritability, meaning that although genetic... Read More... Download PDF

Human Breast Milk miRNA, Maternal Probiotic Supplementation and Atopic Dermatitis in Offspring

Melanie Rae Simpson, Department of Public Health and General Practice,
Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Trondheim, Norway

Background: Perinatal probiotic ingestion has been shown to prevent atopic dermatitis (AD) in infancy. This has been observed in a number of randomised clinical trials using a variety probiotics strains and supplementation regimes, and the strongest evidence comes from studies which include both pre- and post-natal supplementation. Results from our own study, Probiotics in Prevention of Allergy among Children in Trondheim (ProPACT), suggest that maternal supplementation alone is sufficient to prevent AD in offspring. The mechanisms behind this preventative effect are incompletely understood... Read More... Download PDF

Freed Milk Glycan Monomers Create a Niche for Gut Pathogens in Vivo

Steven Frese, Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California, Davis, USA
Steven A Frese1, Jaime Salcedo1, Sercan Karav1, Claire Shaw1, Lindsey Contreras1, Daniela
Barile1, Chris C. Calvert2, David A. Mills1.
1. Department of Food Science and Technology, University of California Davis, CA USA 95616, 2. Department of Animal Science, University of California Davis, CA USA 95616

Milk profoundly shapes the gut microbiome of the neonate, and while nursing is generally associated with protection from enteric infections relative to formula feeding, it is not an impervious protection for the neonate. Despite their role as a highly relevant and tractable model of human neonates, little is known how milk shapes the gut microbiome of nursing pigs. To address this, we profiled the fecal microbiome of pigs from birth through weaning using 16S rRNA marker gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Metagenomic sequencing identified functional differences between key... Read More... Download PDF