species: bonobos

Primate Milk Microbiome Reveals Shared and Unique Features

Primate Milk Microbiome Reveals Shared and Unique Features

Mammalian milk was once thought to be free of bacteria, but it is now well understood that milk has its own microbiome, or community of bacteria. Although only recently “discovered,” microbes were likely one of milk’s original ingredients and have an evolutionarily ancient relationship with their mammal hosts. Many bacterial species are likely common to all. But because some bacterial strains could potentially benefit infant health by promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut or enhancing infant immunity, there may have been numerous opportunities for the evolution of species-specific milk bacterial communities. Does each mammal, including humans, pass on its own unique mix of bacterial strains in milk or is there a more general milk microbiome shared across mammals? Read More...

Evolving Motherhood: When to Wean Part I

Evolving Motherhood: When to Wean Part I

The “evolved” age of weaning is a topic of debate not only among the general public but clinicians and scholars as well. Weaning, however, is not an event—it is a process. When that process begins and how long mothers and infants negotiate milk transfer varies across mother-infant dyads. Additionally, adaptations reflect the selection of traits in ancestral populations; changing ecological conditions can lead to a mismatch between adaptations and current ecological conditions. What was once adaptive in landscapes roamed by early humans may not be the best fit in contemporary urban and suburban environments. And lastly, for these types of behavioral biology traits, there is no precise “one size fits all” adaptive threshold. Read More...

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